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Posted August 28th, 2011 at 10:34 PM Comments 0
Posted in Uncategorized
to cotton 8% duty levied on imports of raw cotton import taxes, and

10%, the V = 20 x 108%-15 x 110% = 5.1 yuan, effective BaoHuLv for

ERP = x 100% = = = 2% x 100%

If the cotton yarn, and for tax exemption of raw cotton import taxes 10%,

the V '= 20-15 x 110% = 3.5 yuan, effective BaoHuLv for

ERP = * 100% 100% = 30% = x

That is when the final product is less than the name of raw materials in

the name of the tax rate, the end product of effective BaoHuLv less than

the name of the tax rate, can appear even negative protection. The

significance of negative protection is because the tariff system

function, to the name of the high tax rates on raw materials, to the

extent of the raw material prices more than the final product after value

added tax increase, so that part of the domestic processing value-added

below foreign processing value-added. This means that producers while

provide value, but because the indiscriminate to import tariffs of

finished goods and raw materials, make this value is reduced, producers

to be unprofitable, and encourage the finished product imports.

4. Tariff structure

Tariff structure and called the customs duty rate structure, it is to

point to one country tariff customs duty rate of all kinds of commodities

in the relationship between high and low. The countries all over the

world because of its domestic economy and the difference of import and

export commodities, tariff structure are also different countries all

over the world. Despite the tariff structure is different, but the common

tariff upgrade phenomenon. Generally performance capital goods tax rate

is low, the tax rate is high, consumer goods The necessities of life is

low, luxury tax rate is high, Its not the tax rate lower commodity

production, native to the tax rate of production is higher. One of the

outstanding characteristic is customs duty rate with product processing

degree of gradually deepening and continuously improve the tariff rate.

Manufactured goods higher than the middle product customs duty rate among

the products, tariff rate higher than primary products of duty tariff

structure. This phenomenon is called upgrade or steps, tariff structure


Posted August 28th, 2011 at 10:20 PM Comments 0
Posted in Uncategorized
Degree of care, tariffs and performance evaluation index system

Tariff protection degree is to point to protect domestic production and

tariff in market of the size of the role.
As countries implement tariff protection of trade policy measures, since

countries one of import and export commodity structure, the focus of the

different different protection, leading to even the same tariff levels in

different countries production and market of domestic protection is not

the same. Therefore, we need to have a comprehensive assessment tariff

protection degree of index system. Usually use tariff BaoHuLv name,

effective BaoHuLv and tariff structure indexes, such as the comprehensive

measure to protect the size of one country tariff level.

1. Tariff levels

Tariff levels (tariff level) is to point to a national average of import

tax rate with tariff. Can be roughly measure is a national import duties

or the degree of protection, it is also a country attend trade agreement

negotiations customs problems must be solved. For example, in gatt

negotiations, tariff cuts will often tariff levels as more countries

tariffs and cut tariffs on the index. Tariff calculation, can through the

two methods of calculating the average gain simple method and weighted

average method.

Simple average method according to the tax rate is one country tariffs

(legal rate) to calculate, namely whether every tax items of the actual

import quantity, according to the number of tax items only tariffs for

its rate of the arithmetic mean because many of tariffs. High tax rates

of the taxes is prohibitive tariffs, little or no relevant goods import,

and some of the import a lot of goods is zero tax or tax-free. Therefore,

the calculation method of the important tax items will trade and the

secondary tax items are in the same weight calculation, is clearly

unreasonable. Because simple average method can't truthfully report the

one country tariff levels, so is seldom used.

The weighted average method is to use the number of imported goods or

prices as a weighted function to average. According to statistics caliber

or more range of different, can divide again for a full of the weighted

average method and the sample of the weighted average method two kinds.

(1) the sum of the weighted average method, that is, according to a

period of import duties on the total amount of all imports value. A

percentage of the total value of formulas for the

Tariff levels = x 100%

In this calculation method, if one country in tariffs exempt items, more

calculated value is low, hard to see some tax rate. So the discretion of

the goods, the other a kind of method is according to import tax has the

percentage of their gross commodities import tax calculation, this
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method, the numerical method than the above a few higher. Computation

formula is

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